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The Church in China
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A great change was made in the Christian Church at Peking, the Jesuits being replaced by the Lazarists. Chinese escorts in saint-celestin the Kia K'ing periodpersecution was very severe. A decree was issued 4 Sept. In an edict of 20 Feb. The edict was not sent to all the governors, and the same year the missionaries, Hue and Gabet, were arrested at Lhassa and the Franciscan Father Navarro in Hu-pe, and all were taken under escort to Canton and Macao; it was not till the war of that the churches of Peking were surrendered to Bishop Mouly. Special privileges were awarded to missions by Art. VI of the French Peking Convention The old churches of the capital were restored to the Lazaristsand passports for inland travel or sojourn issued to twenty-eight missionaries.
This led to an intervention of France in Korea which did not, however, achieve any great degree of success. Things were going from bad to worse in China. Finally came the massacre of T'ien-tsin, 21 June, The French consul, Simon, his chancellor, Thomassinthe interpreter and his wife, the Lazarist father Chevier and the Cantonese priest Hu, Challemaison, a merchant and his wife, ten sisters of St. Vincent of Paul, Bassoff and Protopopoff, Russian merchants, and the wife of the latter--in all twenty-two persons were put to death with great barbarity. The lack of retaliation on the part of France encouraged Prince Kung to send the foreign ministers at Peking a memorandum relating to missions and regulations to be applied to Christian missionaries.
This circular note met with a protest, not only from the French Minister Rochechouart 14 Nov. The murder of the German missionaries, Nies and Heng 1 Nov. The Boxer rebellion brought sad days for the missions. The list of martyrs is lengthy.
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The following bishops were put to death: The Berthemy Convention, finally settled by M. The question of rites Father Riccithe first superior of the Jesuits in Chinahad remarkable success in his work of evangelizing because of the great tolerance he showed the cult rendered by the Chinese to Heavento Confuciusand to ancestors. Indeed, mandarins being obliged to honor officially Heaven and Confucius on certain days, it would have been difficult to convert any of them if they had not been allowed to carry out the functions of their office. Ancestor worship is, practically, the principal religion of China.
Ricci's successor, Longobardi, was of a different mind and finally inwhen Emmanuel Diaz Junior was vice-provincial, a meeting was called to study the question, but no decision was reached. Excess of zealignorance of local customs, or some such reason was the cause of the expulsion of the Dominicans and Franciscans In addition to different views about the religion of the Chinese, there was another cause of discord between the Jesuits and the Dominicans. The former were protected by Portugal and their protectors were at Macao. The latter were Spaniardsand they looked for support to Manila.
InMoralez addressed to Diaz Senior, then Visitor of the Jesuit mission, a memorandum in twelve articles regarding Chinese practices. Diaz having delayed Chinese escorts in saint-celestin answer, Moralez went to Romeand on 12 Sept. The Jesuits thereupon dispatched to Rome Martin Martini, who after a stormy voyage was carried to the Norwegian coast, and was obliged to cross Holland and Germany to Italy. Moralez died but his successor as prefect of the Dominicans in ChinaDomingo Fernandez Navarrettepublished his "Tratados historicos"; the Dominicanshowever, found an adversary among themselves.
The works of Jesuit Father Comte. Finally, the Holy Office published a decree prohibiting the Chinese ceremonies 20 Nov. After various controversies in which Maigrot and the Jesuit Visdelou sided with the legateK'ang-hi, who found the Jesuits better informed about China than their adversaries, ordered Tournon to leave Peking 28 Aug. Tournon issued a mandate at Nan-king 25 Jan. When he arrived at Macao he was thrown into a prison where he died 8 June immediately after being named a cardinal. A Chinese escorts in saint-celestin legateMezzabarba, Patriarch of Alexandriawas sent to China. Chinese escorts in saint-celestin arrived at Macao Chinese escorts in saint-celestin Sept.
Finally, the whole knotty question was settled 11 July, by a Bull of Benedict XIV"Ex quo singulari" condemning the Chinese ceremonies and choosing the expression T'ien-chu which was to be used exclusively to designate God. Missionaries to China had to take an oath not to discuss at any time the terms of the Bull. The bitterness of this celebrated quarrel was greatly increased by various causes: Rome having spoken, no more can be said here on the question, but it may be noted that the Bull "Ex quo singulari" was a terrible blow to the missions in China ; there are fewer Christians than formerly and none among the higher classes, as were the princes and mandarins of the court of K'ang-hi.
The following vicariates were created out of the Diocese of Nan-king Hu-kwang, Fu-kien, Che-kiang, Kiang-si, Yun-nan, Sze-ch'wan, Kwai-chou; inthese last two provinces were joined into one vicariate, to which Yu-nan was added in InYun-nan was again detached, and in Kwei-chou became independent. In Sze-ch'wan was subdivided into Eastern and Western Sze-ch'wan. InFu-kien, Che-kiang, and Kiang-se were combined into one vicariate, but in divided into the vicariates of Fu-kien and Che-kiang Kiang-se. InAmoy was separated from Fu-kien; in Kiang-se was separated from Che-kiang; in the vicariates of Northern and Southern Kiang-se were erected; in the vicariate of Eastern Kiang-se was created.
InHu-kwang was amalgamated with Shan-si and Shen-si but separated in Out of Hu-kwang were formed in the vicariates of Hu-nan and Hu-pe; in Hu-nan was divided into the vicariates of Northern and Southern Hu-nan; inHu-pe was divided into Eastern, Western, and Northern Hu-pe. In Shen-si and Shan-si were separated; in Shen-si was divided into two vicariates, and in Shan-si was divided in a similar manner. In the vicariates of Mongolia and Kang-su were separated from Manchuria and later sub-divided; inHong-Kong was taken from Macao ; at first a prefecture, it was erected into a vicariate in ; the two provinces of Kwang-tung and Kwang-si were detached from Macao in and formed into a prefecture, but were erected into separate prefectures in In Ho-nan was divided from the Diocese of Nan-king, and was erected into a vicariate which was later subdivided.
John's before he could reach Macao or Canton. His successors, Alessandro Valignani d. Matteo Ricci had the honor of being the pioneer missionary at Peking; he was born at MacerataItaly6 Oct. From Chou-k'ing Father Ricci went to Nan-ch'ang ; he visited Peking twice and where he finally settled, leaving Nan-king for the last time 18 May, The latter on going to Peking showed himself a stanch supporter of Ricciwho died 11 May, Ricci was the first superior of the Peking mission. Ricciunder the Chinese name of Li Ma-teu, wrote many works still appreciated by the Chinese, among them "T'ien-chu Shi-yi" the true doctrine of Godpublished intranslated into Manchu, Korean, Japaneseand French; "Ki-ho Yuan-pun", the first six books of Euclid, etc.
The following are the names of some of the best-known members of this mission: Emmanuel Diaz Junior Yang Ma-nob. Phillippe Couplet pe Ing-lib. Ferdinand Verbiest Nan Hwai-jen ; b. Augustin von Hallersteinb. The last two named were mathematicians. Their mission under the protectorate of the French king was distinct from the mission of the other Jesuitswho were known in a general manner as "Portuguese", to distinguish them from their French brethren. The superiors of the French mission were: The following are the names of the most remarkable among the French Jesuits: Having been superior of the house at Peking he was appointed, 3 Nov. He was the interpreter for the treaty signed with Russia at Nerchinsk inand the author of a Manchu grammar.
Claude de Visdelou Liu-inb. He arrived in China in His very valuable "Historie de la Tartarie" was published as an appendix to B. Joachim Bouvet Pe-tainb. Dominique Parrenin Pa-To-mingb. Aloysius Gonzaga Tsi-mei-pien and St. Antoine Gaubil Sun-kiun-yungb. Pierre d'Incarville T'angb. Numerous and important works were compiled or written by these hard-working missionaries. They were the basis of d'Anville's celebrated maps issued between and Du Halde Paris,compiled from materials sent by twenty-seven missionaries in China. This work was reprinted in by Yves-Mathurin-Marie de Querbeuf.
There have been numerous editions and translations since. The artists at Peking were Jean-Denis Attiret d. The plates were engraved at Paris under the direction of C. Besides Attiret there was another Jesuit painter at the imperial court, Giuseppe Panzi b. The Jesuits had four churches at Peking. The Jesuitson their suppression inwere replaced by the Lazarists. There were but few fathers at Peking when the news of the suppression of the Society reached the Chinese capital, Sept. Hallerstein and Benolt died of grief; the last member, Louis de Poirot, died before Oct. The work was too heavy for one man, and Monsignor de Besi wrote to the General of the Jesuits 18 Sept.
The Christians of Kiang-nan had already applied to the general, the Very Rev. At last, two JesuitsClaude Gotteland b. Soon afterwards they were joined by Benjamin Brueyre b. Monsignor de Besi then had as successor Monsignor Martesca d. An important magnetic and meteorological observatory has been erected in the neighborhood of Shanghai, at the village of Zi-ka-wei, so called in the local dialect on account of the proximity of the tomb of the celebrated convert Paul Siu, under the direction of Father Augustin ColobelHenri Le LeeMarc DechevrensBernard Ooms, Stanislas ChevalierLouis Froe Here are published valuable bulletins and memoirs which render the greatest service to navigators by forecasts of the weather, special study being made of typhoons.
A yearly calendar full of useful data is also issued. An astronomical observatory was also established at Zo-se Che-shan in by Father Beaurepaire. Since annals have been published; inthe director, Stanislas Chevalier, surveyed the Upper Yang-tze from I-ch'ang to P'ing-shan-hien and published a fine folio atlas of the great river, consisting of sixty-four sheets Under the direction of Pierre Heude b. These monographs treat of various provinces, of examinations, of the Great Canal, of landed propertyof the Jewsetc. The Jesuits of this mission belong to the province of France.
Sincea quarterly under the title "Relations du Chine" has been issued at the head-quarters in Paris. In part of the Chi-li province was also ecorts to Chinese escorts in saint-celestin care of the Jesuitsand Adrien Languillat escotrs. This mission suffered eaint-celestin during the Boxer Rebellion. Some of its members have distinguished themselves by their publications, e. The Jesuits saiht-celestin this mission belong to the province of Champagne, the head-quarters secorts at Amiens. Since November,they have edited a periodical entitled "Chine, CeylonMadagascar". Dominicans The first missionary to arrive in China in modern times was the Portuguese DominicanGaspar da Cruzwhose successors were expelled by the mandarins, the latters' fears having been aroused.
Gaspar da Cruz wrote a book entitled "Tractado. The well-known DominicanJuan Bautista de Moralez b. Beginning inthe Dominicans printed for many years at Manila "El Correo Sino-Annamita", which embodied the letters from their missionaries in ChinaFormosa, and Tong-king. The Dominicans have but two vicariates in China: Fu-kien and Amoy the latter embracing Formosathe Phillipine Islands being the centre of their activity. Franciscans InPedro d'Alfaro, guardian of the province of St. Francisand Augustin de Tordesillas, made a stay of seven months in Chinabut the first Franciscan with a special mission to China was Antonio de Santa Maria Li, b. Among the most remarkable of these friars should be mentioned Basilio Brollo, better known as Baile de Glenmona Ye T'sung-hien, b.
Also Carlo Orazio Castorano eighteenth centuryauthor of many works.
He had thoroughly studied the homo and travelled extensively in ChinaCochin-China, Tong-king, and Persia. Mar Sergius, a Nestorianand other Christians are mentioned in a homo of Chin-kiang-fu. Ricci was the first superior of the Peking mission.
It was not until that Alvaro de Benevente arrived in China ; he was Chinese escorts in saint-celestin titular Bishop of Ascalon and placed at the head of the newly created vicariate of Kiang-si with his residence at Kan-chou. He died suddenly at Macao in and was not replaced, the Vicar Apostolic of Fu-kien taking charge also of Kiang-si and Che-kiang. No apostle was more eager than Alexandre de Rhodes, S. He had thoroughly studied the question and travelled extensively in ChinaCochin-China, Tong-king, and Persia. She is married to John J. Balbin, and has a son named, Noah J. Her educational background and experience have been in the area of Health and Behavioral Sciences.
InMarie worked as a social worker with Guma Mami, a non-profit organization and provided services for adults with disabilities. Inshe was promoted to Program Coordinator, in which she oversaw social workers, and managed a federal grant that focused on providing services to adults with disabilities who have been abused. She is a member of the Guam Association of School Counselors. In addition to promoting positive character development with all students, she networks with community agencies and the military in support of her program and school goals.
Marie also takes part in the community here on Guam. She has been involved in volunteering with her church fundraising activities and was a member of the Pro-Life committee. Ulloa Elementary School for the past three years. At the University of Guam she learned to be sensitive to cultural and ethnic diversity with the utmost intentions of ending social injustice. She also teaches the students by conducting character education classes that promote academic and social excellence. While attending college, Leah worked at BankPacific, Ltd.
Leah has also worked as a liaison between the school and several community organizations. Leah is married to Roald S. Balansay who is a teacher at Simon Sanchez High School and has three children. Second eldest is Sebastian Theron, who is 8-years-old and will be fourth grade at Maria A. Finally, the youngest of them all is Dontes Sven, who is 4-years-old and will be in Pre-School this upcoming school year. For the upcoming school yearLeah plans to establish an Advisory Council which will be used to evaluate her school counseling curriculum. She also plans on strengthening career readiness for the intermediate grade levels.
Leah and her co-counselor will be working on career awareness for the primary grades according to the Guam Comprehensive School Counselor Program, which is based on the national model of the American School Counselors Association ASCA. She is a founding board member of Payu'ta, the umbrella organization of nonprofits on Guam and served on the Micronesian Youth Services Network board of directors for several years, with successful annual regional conferences in multiple years under her belt for both organizations. Alvarez Baza Monique S. She began her career in education in Alongside being an educator, Monique has more recently become an advocate in the fight to end violence and sexual assault within our island community.
Michael Lujan Bevacqua, Ph. In he led a faculty task force in successfully creating a Chamorro Studies BA program at the University of Guam and he currently serves as the coordinator for the program.
He has been interviewed for a number of documentaries dealing with Guam, such as Talent Town and Island of Warriors and was also featured on several NHK Japan documentaries and the television show Dan Rather Presents. In Chinese escorts in saint-celestin documentary he co-produced titled War for Guam, directed by Frances Negron-Muntaner was released, which chronicles the struggles of Chamorro people during and after World War II. He was a consultant for the Chamorro non-profit group, Guam Communications Network from to where he assisted in the translation Chinese escorts in saint-celestin health documents into Chamorro, wrote narratives and painted images for the Chamorro Providing Access to Health Book.
From - Bevacqua worked as the assistant managing editor for two academic journals Social Identities and African Identities. He is currently on the editorial board for the journal Micronesian Educator. He was also co-editor of Chamoru Childhood, an anthology of Chamoru stories published by Achiote Press in In andBevacqua received the Tan Chong Padula Humanitarian Award from the southern California non-profit organization Guam Communications Network for his outstanding commitment and service to the Chamorro community.
He has been invited back to the United Nations to testify as an expert about the political status of Guam in and Since Bevacqua has maintained a personal blog No Rest for the Awake — Minagahet Chamorro, which is one of the oldest continuously maintained blog dealing with Chamorro and Guam issues. Republished with permission from Guampedia Yvette T. In her sixteen 16 years of service with Probation, she has supervised hundreds of defendants, to include juvenile offenders, family violence offenders and most recently, drug offenders. Officer Blas-Ananich is currently assigned as Officer in Charge of the Adult Drug Unit, which supervises over four hundred drug offenders, both pretrial and post-judgement cases.
Not only was she able to complete her graduate studies in one year while she continued working full-time with the Probation Division, Yvette also received the Meritorious Award when she obtained her Master of Public Administration Degree from the University of Guam in December Yvette follows in the footsteps of her parents, Former Lt. Her commitment to service goes beyond the public sector. She is a daughter, a sister, a mother, a probation officer, and a proud employee of the Government of Guam. Leon Guerrero Middle School in Yigo. She also has professional endorsement as a school librarian from GCEC. She has also served as the school representative for the ReadA-Thon, facilitator for Rainbows for All Children, and one-time coach for the school's Academic Challenge Bowl team.
Inshe was nominated for Guam Teacher of the Year. Blas Familian Ochai of Chalan Pago. And a host of others. Notice re Board of Licensing and the applications list Pagr 2. High Water— o a. Scotland v the Rest. Monthly Miss, meeting, Prinsep-st h.